Let me know if you find any honest politicians while you’re at it! Other faiths do not necessarily attempt to answer the question “How did we get here? Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh faith, talked of planets beyond planets and moons beyond moons, suns beyond suns and seas and lands beyond measure throughout universe s that we could not comprehend. He wrote this over years ago. I am not pushing a faith, by the way. Sikhism doesn’t believe in conversion and does not claim to have a monopoly on wisdom. It believes that all faiths can lead to salvation, so what would be the point of conversion? It also is critical of the excesses of organized religion and doesn’t base the concept of salvation on the adoption of any particular faith. It seems that creationists seem to neglect the facts that nothing can be created or destroyed chemistry and attribute creation to “Divine Power”. Naturalists have many different ideas which I will simply use Big Bang to cover them all.
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Is it possible that the God of the Bible could reveal some things to us in such a way that we can know them for certain? With this question the unbeliever is forced to say yes. If he says no, he would be giving an absolute statement that he cannot support. How could any intellectually honest individual say that an omnipotent and omniscient being could not reveal some things to us in a way that we can know them for certain?
It is because the human mind is fallible and can be deceived by any higher power you believe in a great deceiver in the form of Satan. The person would have to know everything about what was revealed and about the entity revealing it to determine that what was revealed was something they could know for certain, for which they already knew as they knew everything about what was revealed.
When you hear talk of evidence for evolution, the first thing that frequently comes to mind for most people is fossil record has one important, unique characteristic: it is our only actual glimpse into the past where common descent is proposed to have taken place.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.
Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection. A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low.
Also called a fitness surface.
In science, explanations are restricted to those that can be inferred from confirmable data—the results obtained through observations and experiments that can be substantiated by other scientists. Anything that can be observed or measured is amenable to scientific investigation. Explanations that cannot be based on empirical evidence are not a part of science. The history of life on earth is a fascinating subject that can be studied through observations made today, and these observations have led to compelling accounts of how organisms have changed over time.
Real-World Biology: Analysis, Dating the Iceman continued On September 19, , an amazing discovery was Paleontologists are scientists who study fossils, pre- to explain that the table and graph are two differ-ent ways to show the same information. • .
Renaissance Now, let’s look at some specific examples. One type of atom that does not normally react is Neon. See the picture to the left. It already has the correct number of electrons in it’s outside electron layer so Neon does not react. Neon, along with Helium and Argon are known as non-reacting gasses because they do not need to react to be stable.
Other types of atoms such as Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen do not have the correct number of electrons to be stable by itself. Instead they have to share electrons in molecules to get the correct number of electrons in their outside electron layer. Since we only have to look at the atom that is in the center of the molecule to find out it’s shape, we will concentrate only on Carbon and Oxygen. All the molecules illustrated on this page either have a Carbon or an Oxygen as the center atom.
Carbon will especially be of interest since Carbon is the center atom for all the different Amino Acids. Both Carbon and Oxygen have a deficiency. Neither C nor O have the proper number of electrons in their outside electron layer.
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How do fossils form? Where are they found? What is a Fossil?
Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4. In these early studies the order of sedimentary rocks and structures were used to date geologic time periods and events in a relative way. At first, the use of “key” diagnostic fossils was used to compare different areas of the geologic column.
Although there were attempts to make relative age estimates, no direct dating method was available until the twentieth century. However, before this time some very popular indirect methods were available. For example, Lord Kelvin had estimated the ages of both the Earth and the Sun based on cooling rates. The answer of 25 million years deduced by Kelvin was not received favorably by geologists.
Both the physical geologists and paleontologists could point to evidence that much more time was needed to produce what they saw in the stratigraphic and fossil records. As one answer to his critics, Kelvin produced a completely independent estimate — this time for the age of the Sun. His result was in close agreement with his estimate of the age of the earth.
What is the Fossil Record?
Thus, the layers are successively younger, going from bottom to top. The convention in geology is to number the layers beds within a sequence such that the oldest layer has the lowest number. In the illustration, layer 1 was deposited at time 1. At time 2, layer 2 was deposited on top of layer 1.
To follow up on what Sarah said, the amount of dates from terrestrial vs marine rocks is about the same, but because the timescale was defined using marine biostratigraphy, people have tended to target marine rocks first for radioisotopic dating.
Sorry, something has gone wrong. This is based on dating the rocks found in the same layers of soil. Because we know how many kinds of rocks form volcanically, and we also know that they contain ratios of elements that change at a known rate because some elements undergo radioactive decay at a known rate , we can compute the approximate age of the rocks, and thus the fossils.
There are certain species of organisms that we find unique to certain layers of soil of a certain age as determined by 1. For example, trilobites are found only in Cambrian layers about to million years ago , and ammonites are found only in late Silurian and early Devonian layers about million years ago. Once we have documented this pattern, those fossils are “index fossils” that allow us to date other fossils in the same layer.
Evolution: Fact and Theory
After mating, the female then builds a nest elsewhere to raise the young alone. Franco Atirador Stephen J. Gould argued that these enormous antlers, which required great mineral resources from plants to support and prevented the elk from navigating through forests, were largely responsible for their extinction. The positioning of the antlers were poor for combat between males, but were great for intimidating rivals and impressing females.
Bird-of-Paradise Bird of Paradise These birds have evolved a wide variety of plumage displays for the sole purpose of attracting a mate. Duck genitalia and mechanical barriers Credit:
Who was there when the events of Genesis happened? Did Adam, or Noah, or Enoch script as they were living? Kinda dismisses the whole oral tradition idea, no? Not even the gospels were written until years after the fact. Ultimately, Tas has the right idea. Accept nothing fully; question everything. The cosmic challenge to logic, and the entire idea of why is life, directs down to the assumption that no one can make any absolute conclusions about anything, given the paucity of evidence proffered.
September 27, Hi Androloma: The gospels are much more reliable than you suggest. Matthew was one of Jesus disciples—an eyewitness of many of the events of Jesus life, and friends with all who were involved. Mark was a friend of Peter and Barnabas and he is mentioned many times in the NT. Luke the doctor carefully studied the events Luke 1: And John was an apostle and eyewitness John
Two Feminist Sluts Indoctrinate America
Dating methods Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of a specimen. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another sample; absolute dating methods provide a date in years. The latter have generally been available only since Many absolute dating techniques take advantage of radioactive decay , whereby a radioactive form of an element is converted into another radioactive isotope or non-radioactive product at a regular rate.
Others, such as amino acid racimization and cation-ratio dating, are based on chemical changes in the organic or inorganic composition of a sample.
One principle of relative dating is called superposition, which holds that in any one place, the lower rock layers (and fossils in them) are older than higher ones, unless there is evidence that the layers have been overturned. This is logical, since the lower sediments would have been deposited first.
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years. The short half-life of carbon means it cannot be used to date fossils that are allegedly extremely old, e. The question should be whether or not carbon can be used to date any artifacts at all?
The answer is not simple. There are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon ; however, they cannot be more 50, years old. Carbon cannot be used to date biological artifacts of organisms that did not get their carbon dioxide from the air. This rules out carbon dating for most aquatic organisms, because they often obtain at least some of their carbon from dissolved carbonate rock.
Fossils Reveal Truth About Darwin’s Theory
September Evolution theory explains how organisms have changed over time. The fossil fish Priscacara liops found in sediments dating from the Eocene epoch Scientific understanding requires both facts and theories that can explain those facts in a coherent manner. Evolution, in this context, is both a fact and a theory. It is an incontrovertible fact that organisms have changed, or evolved, during the history of life on Earth.
Aug 06, · Carbon dating is fraught with problems, however, and most of the researchers who date fossils date them according to the strata they are found in, or, more precisely, the layers they are found between, since sedimentary materials are not amenable to radiometric dating.
Carbon dating is generally used on those remains considered to be only a few thousand years old. Carbon dating is fraught with problems, however, and most of the researchers who date fossils date them according to the strata they are found in, or, more precisely, the layers they are found between, since sedimentary materials are not amenable to radiometric dating.
Carbon dating is not ‘fraught’ with problems. Carbon dating must be done with care and the results scrutinized, but this is normal procedure in radiometric dating. Sedimentary rocks ARE amenable to dating in many circumstances and these methods are gaining in popularity. Be careful in painting broad brush strokes. These methods and techniques are getting better and easier. More importantly, they are yielding consistent ages.
However, if your evolutionist friend claims that dinosaurs are dated by C dating, then he is just wrong.
List and describe two ways that scientists can date fossils found in the earth?
Max Roscoe is an aspiring philosopher king, living the dream, travelling the world, hoarding FRNs and ignoring Americunts. According to SoundCloud, there are over half a million regular listeners. Situations like this call for different tactics—normally I would just ignore or mock a couple of unfunny, crude, and disgusting feminists.
There are two basic forms of carbon: one that occurs naturally, called carbon (12 C), and one that forms from processes acting on nitrogen in the atmosphere, called carbon (14 C). Both of these combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide (CO 2), which we breathe out and plants take in.
Resplendence The natural complement to science in reflowering the Tree of Life. Entheogens, the Conscious Brain and Existential Reality A state of the art research overview of what is currently known about how entheogens affect the brain and to explore their implications for understanding the conscious brain and its relationship to existential reality.
Reproductive Technology and Germ-Line Engineering: The Comprehensive Tree Linked in figure 1 is a high-resolution image of the evolutionary tree of life, from viruses through bacteria and archaea to protista, plants, animals and fungi, with a selection of representative species illustrated. I have updated and amended this several times as new research has clarified specific parts of the trunk and branches. The evolutionary tree of life is our immortal progenitor, not just of ourselves, but of all the species with which we co-depend, so we need to both understand it and protect it for the future generations.
This initial tree forms a good representation of the evolution of higher plants and fungi, so the remainder of the article will examine the tortuous route from the last common ancestor, through the eucaryotes to metazoa, and ultimately to humanity, language and culture.