My critics, and even some of my supporters, question this evidence. To such people, I reply that evidence for extreme human antiquity is evidence for extreme human antiquity no matter when it was reported. Science, it is claimed, has made considerable advancement since the old days. Will it suddenly become untrue? If that were true, the only way to get reliable evidence would be to project oneself forward to the end of time, if there is such a thing. The last facts would then be the real ones, all past evidence being consigned to the oblivion of falsity. But in reality we do not consistently make judgments like that. But evidence that contradicts the dominant theory of human evolution is held to a different standard. But it simply is not true that all science done before midnight January 1, , is automatically outdated.
Thank goodness for the irrepressible urge of humans and other animals to joke and play around in nearly any situation. Sometimes, it pays big dividends. It certainly did in , when paleoanthropologist Andrew Hill and a colleague were tossing elephant dung at each other in Laetoli, a hominid archeological site in Tanzania.
Apr 01, · The Laetoli footprints create quite a quandary for your theory. According to your dating methods, they are too old to be made by genus Homo and to modern-looking to be made by genus Australopithecus. The solution by your team has been to assign modern, human features to an ape-like creature in spite of the fossil evidence.
Claims of a Transitional Ape How about Homo habilis? Fossils found in the Olduvai Gorge in Kenya were classified as Homo habilis. However, these fossils found in Africa turn out to be just as ape-like as Lucy in their structure, in fact, probably just another variety of Australopithicines. For example, habilis fossil OH 62 had long, apelike arms like Australopithicus, an ape-like skull, and was chimp-sized. And this particular fossil was in fragments, so the way it was put together made a huge difference in whether it look ape-like or human in the face structure.
For elaboration on the above information on Homo habilis, see: Fossil evidence for alleged apemen-Part1: So how about Homo erectus? If Homo erectus is not the link, there is nothing else to bridge the gap between the Australopithicine apes and modern humans. It turns out that except for skull morphology, Homo erectus has the body of modern man, albeit a bit more robust and rugged. In fact it looks much like the Neanderthal in cranial structure, but with a smaller average cranial capacity.
‘Hobbits’ on Flores, Indonesia
The scientific theme of the paper is about body size and dimorphism. The species presumed to have made all the trackways is Australopithecus afarensis, the only species that has so far been reported from fossil remains at Laetoli, although the tracks at 3. Based on a regression of foot size to stature, the new footprint trail in test pit L8 represents an individual that probably stood around cm, with 10 cm or so error either way.
those at Laetoli locality G, Tanzania, dating to MATERIAL AND METHODS to compare the Laetoli footprints to familiar modern human footprints, in conditions broadly applicable to those of the Laetoli track-bearing substrate, experimen-tal footprints were made by Western human (i.e.
Chimpanzee hunting has been used as a model for the origins of human hunting because: Chimpanzees taught by humans to make simple stone tools: In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers have taughtchimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, these chimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the same skill. This could be considered: True Rapid burial after death usually impedes fossilization.
This exaggerated antiquity of man lends itself well to fantasies about Atlantis , Mu , and Lemuria as well as others. In the second part of the Forbidden Archaeology? Cremo is also the co-author of a book called Forbidden Archaeology in which he presents much of his speculation about the antiquity of man and in this he has a section on the Laetoli footprints, which I found excerpted on the Internet. Readers who have accompanied us this far in our intellectual journey will have little difficulty in recognizing the Laetoli foot prints as potential evidence for the presence of anatomically modern human beings over 3.
Cremo and Thompson seem to have an affinity with quoting R.
Chronometric Techniques–Part II. Most of the chronometric dating methods in use today are is to say, they are based on knowledge of the rate at which certain radioactive isotopes within dating samples decay or the rate of other cumulative changes in atoms resulting from radioactivity. Isotopes are specific forms of elements.
Photo by Genevieve Hathaway. How did Pharaoh Tutankhamun die? Also, there is no sign of an infection in the knee cap region. Benson Harer, who spoke last night at the Burke Museum, has another theory — King Tutankamun died from a hippopotamus attack while hunting them. There was a hole in the Foremen Magnum which the embalmers had created to drain out part of the brain.
All other royal mummies had the abdominal organs via either a cut in the upper left flank or lower left flank. The embalmers also did a few other strange things. Harer argued that the reason for all of the anomalies in the mummification process and the mummy were demanded by the mummies The god Set. The left ribs were cut away farther than the right side, so he argued that this was where the impact that killed the Pharaoh was. Also the injuries do not match those sustained by someone attached by a crocodile, horse or bull all things the King either hunted or dealt with.
And the kings did hunt hippos. A hippo attack, Harer theorized, would be symbolic enough for the Powers That Be, which we now running the country, would want to keep as hush-hush as possible.
Donald C Johanson
Laetoli Footprint Trails The footprints of our predecessors The Laetoli footprints were most likely made by Australopithecus afarensis, an early human whose fossils were found in the same sediment layer. The entire footprint trail is almost 27 m 88 ft long and includes impressions of about 70 early human footprints. The early humans that left these prints were bipedal and had big toes in line with the rest of their foot. This means that these early human feet were more human-like than ape-like, as apes have highly divergent big toes that help them climb and grasp materials like a thumb does.
The footprints also show that the gait of these early humans was “heel-strike” the heel of the foot hits first followed by “toe-off” the toes push off at the end of the stride —the way modern humans walk. It is not until much later that early humans evolved longer legs, enabling them to walk farther, faster, and cover more territory each day.
In , Mary Leakey discovered footprints in the Laetoli region of Tanzania. These were in a stratum calculated to be million years old and, even more importantly, were identical to those any modern human being would leave.
The feet do not have the mobile big toe of apes; instead, they have an arch the bending of the sole of the foot typical of modern humans. The hominins seem to have moved in a leisurely stroll. Computer simulations based on information from A. S2 is represented by only 1 print, but S1 left a track of prints, the first 4 of which are shown in the composite image, along with an analysis of step and stride lengths. Further analysis indicated that individual S1 was considerably larger than any of the three individuals from site G.
Other footprints and artifacts[ edit ] Other prints show the presence of twenty different animal species besides the hominin A. Rain-prints can be seen as well. Few footprints are superimposed, which indicates that they were rapidly covered up.
Index to Creationist Claims
The Laetoli Footprints Explained The Laetoli footprints are fossils of footprints that look suspiciously like human footprints of today. They appear to be the fossilized footprints of two or three hominids that walked through Laetoli, Tanzania, millions of years ago. The very idea that humanoids were walking upright for as long as these fossils suggest has sparked a great deal of controversy.
Creationists typically believe that the Laetoli footprints are not millions of years old and that the footprints are not hominid, but human. Scientists tend to believe that these footprints could not have come from modern man, so it must suggest that hominids have been walking on two feet longer than previously thought. Mary Leakey was on an expedition in Tanzania with a group of other scientists when he found the Laetoli footprints.
Dating Method Accuracy If the evolutionists do not trust potassium argon dates. then why should the public be led to trust them? Potassium/argon dates Fossil pig sequences. i Footprints Footprints discovered in in Laetoli.5 million years old. The footprints were dated at 3. Documents Similar To OriginofMan. science.
The enigmatic footprints were discovered in modern-day Tanzania and were preserved for millions of years thanks to a region which was at that time covered with wet volcanic ash. The Southern part of the hominin trackway in test-pit L8. The footprints belonged to a group of early humans who inhabited modern-day Tanzania. Scientists believe the enigmatic set of footprints were left behind by our ancient relatives—most likely Australopithecus afarensis—as they walked across a region covered with wet volcanic ash.
The set of 13 footprints were discovered near Laetoli, Tanzania by scientists from Sapienza University in Rome. Scientists suggest the footprints belonged to around five members of early humans who may have had a gorilla-like social arrangement where one dominant male mated with several females. In fact, fossils of Au. Colour renders heights as in the color bar. The empty circles indicate the position of the targets of the 3D-imaging control point system.
New footprints from Laetoli and improving the science of fossil context
Geology In Sat, 18 Aug The footprints are approximately 5. Ever since the discovery of fossils of Australopithecus in South and East Africa during the middle years of the 20th century, the origin of the human lineage has been thought to lie in Africa. More recent fossil discoveries in the same region, including the iconic 3. The discovery of approximately 5. Human feet have a very distinctive shape, different from all other land animals.
Leakey’s greatest discovery was a set of footprints discovered at the Laetoli site (Site G), located 27 miles (45 kilometers) south of Olduvai Gorge. The site is Pliocene, dated by the Potassium-argon method to million years ago.
Steven Linke [Last Update: This institute seems to be a common topic of debate on these groups, so since I live relatively nearby and have had an interest in the discussions, I decided to pay them a visit. In addition, I was seeking original creationist papers on molecular biology I never found any.
I hope this information isn’t redundant or included in the FAQs. I found it to be quite interesting. Institute for Creation Research Woodside Avenue North Santee, CA It is a relatively new built in and attractive two-story building located in an industrial park off a frontage road of highway
Mary Leakey: Unearthing History
Dating Here of some of the well-tested methods of dating used in the study of early humans: Potassium-argon dating, Argon-argon dating, Carbon or Radiocarbon , and Uranium series. All of these methods measure the amount of radioactive decay of chemical elements; the decay occurs in a consistent manner, like a clock, over long periods of time. Thermo-luminescence, Optically stimulated luminescence, and Electron spin resonance.
All of these methods measure the amount of electrons that get absorbed and trapped inside a rock or tooth over time. Since animal species change over time, the fauna can be arranged from younger to older.
Mary Leakey: Unearthing History Editors’ Note: Mary Leakey, one of the world’s most renowned hunters of early human fossils, died in Nairobi on December 9, , at the age of
XVII, , pp The Red Crag formation has been dated to million years old by C. Somewhat resembles a real citation, but not closely enough. There is no evidence that the jaw was even found in that formation. They disbelieved, said Osborn , p. He [Collyer] had a chemical analysis made that showed that the jaw was largely mineralized, but retained 8 per cent of animal matter.
But so would the footprints of any hominin. It might have been quote mining if Cremo had been claiming that Mary Leakey was asserting the footprints to be made by a modern like human. Mary Leakey , p. Here we once more confront the debate, between the Leakeys on one hand and Johanson and White on the other, about the number and type of species represented by the fossil materials from Hadar and Laetoli.